Swipe to the left

April 2015

Options For Wireworm Control In Maize

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

Maize growers must weigh up the risks posed on their farm when considering whether or not to use Sonido treated seed.

Wireworms are the larvae of the Click Beetle. Butter yellow to golden-brown in colour and up to 25mm in length, they have a thin body and three pairs of legs behind the head. Established grassland allows wireworm numbers to increase and when swards are cultivated the pest can pose a significant risk to following crops for up to three years.

The larvae may feed on the germ of maize kernels or completely hollow out the seeds, leaving only the seed coat. This is most often evidenced by gaps in the rows of plants. Additionally, the larvae may bore into the stalk at or below soil level, resulting in affected plants turning purple, wilting and often breaking at the level of the soil surface.

March-May is a peak period of wireworm activity, which of course coincides with the sowing period for maize. Damage is intensified when maize is planted early and the weather turns cold (as in 2013), slowing germination and establishment. Infestations are worse in areas of a field that stay moist for long periods of time. As soil temperatures warm, wireworms move deeper in the soil and eventually a point is reached where they are no longer a threat to growing maize. There are no insecticidal sprays approved for wireworm control in maize; seed treatment and cultural control are the only tools available.


Given that wireworm pose greatest threat for the first two years after an old ley is cultivated, cultural control techniques are centred on avoiding growing maize in these situations. An alternative strategy would be to grow winter cereals for a couple of years (perhaps for wholecrop silage?) and rely on the cereal seed treatment Deter to offer a measure of wireworm control.

Neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments (such as Poncho) offered a measure of wireworm control but amidst fears over bee safety, this chemistry was removed from the market for a two year period (we are now in the second year). 

A replacement for Poncho was found in Sonido, which is available on a limited range of maize varieties. Sonido is slightly less effective against wireworms than Poncho (in trials in France and Germany). Also, significantly, Sonido cannot be applied in conjunction with Mesurol, which acted as an efficient bird repellent. DuPont Pioneer offer Korit as a bird repellent which is co-applied with Sonido on some of their varieties. Limagrain have adopted a different approach and announced that higher rates of the fungicide Thiram appear to deter birds. For the 2015 season they offer Sonido plus Thiram. 

Both Poncho and Sonido have been found to affect the germination and viability of treated seed. This effect appears to be intensified when seed is sown into cold, wet seed-beds and therefore special care should be taken to ensure sowing conditions are adequate.

Maize growers must weigh up the risks posed on their farm when considering whether or not to use Sonido treated seed. Consideration should be given to the age of the sward which preceded the maize crop and also, how many crops of maize have been grown since the grass was ploughed-out.

Written by: Dr Simon Pope - Crop Protection Product Manager
For more iformation dairy@wynnstay.co.uk

Are you getting the best from your silage?

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

Guide to producing quality silage

  1. Ensure adequate interval between last N fertiliser application and proposed cutting date. The rule of thumb is 2 units per day.
  2. Test grass prior to cutting for nitrates.
  3. Ideally grass showed be mown in the afternoon when grass sugars are at their highest. It is best to start cutting after lunch and work late into the evening (avoiding dew) than first thing in the morning.
  4. Mow at 4” stubble height. This will reduce contamination, promote faster wilting and increase nutrient density.
  5. If a spreader mower is not used, ted the grass out immediately after cutting. This is essential for first cuts but depending on weather conditions may not be required for subsequent cuts
  6. Harvest at 30-35 % DM. This can be checked by weighing 100g of forage in a plastic container and then drying the sample in a microwave. Continue to dry the sample until it stops losing weight. The final weight is the %DM.
  7. Do not cut too little or too much acreage in front of the harvester. Match the area cut to duration of the campaign and the output of the forage harvester.
  8. Ensure that the rake is set at the correct height so not to rake up stones and soil.  Best to do this in the Yard and then check again in the field.
  9. Do not rake up grass which will not be harvested in the same day. Large swaths left overnight heat up and gather moisture. The only exception to this rule is if too much grass is down infront of the harvester and there is a danger of it getting too dry.
  10.  Apply an inoculant at the recommended rate. Use an inoculant that provides 1x106 CFU/g.
  11. Line the walls of the silage pit with side sheets that are sufficient length to reach the floor and long enough to be folded over the silage and reach the centre of the clamp or a minimum of 2m in from the shoulders (fig 1.0). Lay plastic drainage pipes along the bottom of the walls to carry away any effluent and rain water that runs down the side walls. A thin sheet on top of the silage will further reduce losses.  This thin sheet is better than two thick black sheets.
  12. Vary the cut length according to the maturity and the DM of the crop. Very young leafy material should be chopped at between 30 to 40mm as should very wet material. Drier more mature forage should be chopped at around 25mm.
  13. Fill the clamp with thin layers of forage (15cm) and consolidate well. Use an additional roller tractor on the clamp. Regulate the speed of harvesting if insufficient time for rolling is a problem. Adequate time for consolidation should govern the speed of the harvesting operation.
  14. Ensure the area in front of the clamp is clean and free from contamination.
  15. Do not roll the clamp extensively at the end of the day or before starting in the morning. Apply a layer of forage before beginning to roll the clamp the next day.
  16.  Avoid steep ramps and shoulders that are difficult to consolidate. Gradients above 30 degrees will not consolidate.
  17. Before sheeting apply clingseal followed by the side sheets and then the top sheet.
  18.  Secure covers only work effectively on domed clamps. The sheet will need tightening daily following ensilage for a week or so.
  19. On flat topped clamps touching tyres or rubber mats will need to be used.
  20.  Consider how the forage will be utilised in the winter/feeding period and store according to quality  

  21. Written by Dr Huw McConochie - Head of Dairy Technical ServicesFollow @HuwMcConochieFor more details dairy@wynnstay.co.uk

Weed Control In Newly Sown Leys

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

Establishing a new ley is an expensive business so it is important to ensure it establishes evenly and rapidly to be as productive as possible.

The key to good even establishment is of course ensuring a good seedbed and adequate pH and nutrient availability, but once the grass is sown, keeping weeds out becomes equally important. Early competition from vigorous weeds such as chickweed and mayweed can rapidly reduce the growth of grass and leave new leys ‘gappy’ and unproductive. An uneven grass ley can take a considerable time to become fully productive. This is particularly true if the ley also contains clover.

Many grassland herbicide products dictate that grass should be ’established’, i.e. over a year old at the time of treatment. In addition, many cannot be used in clover leys. The number of available herbicides for newly sown leys is limited, particularly where clover features in the sward.


Newly sown grass leys, (ie. those under one year old) fall into two distinct types:

• Pure grass sward
Grass and clover mixture

One of the best options for early weed control in any new ley is Triad. It is safe on pure grass leys and also, importantly, on grass and clover mixes (both red and white clover). Triad can also be used on spring barley undersown with grass.

Triad will control chickweed and is currently the only clover safe product available in the market that will control large chickweed in young leys. Other species where good control may be expected include:

Scented Mayweed
Shepherd’s Purse
Seedling Broad leaved Dock

Triad provides control of seedling broad-leaved docks up to a maximum of 4 true leaves. However, it should be noted that adult docks or those regenerating from root pieces may not be controlled.

When to apply:
Triad is best applied when weeds are young and actively growing, during a period of warm days and warm nights. The product should be applied from the three true leaf stage of the grass and, if present, when clover is at the three trifoliate leaf stage or later.

Where grass leys have been established in the autumn and the weed burden is high, Triad in combination with a Phenoxy partner may be the ideal solution.

This is for several reasons:
• SU chemistry is inherently slow in activity, and a Phenoxy partner will speed up the initial rate of kill
• The Phenoxy partner will broaden the spectrum of activity
• It will act as an anti-resistance strategy to protect the SU group of active ingredients

We would recommend using a tank mix with Headland Spruce. This mix is clover safe.

Headland Spruce will improve control of annual species such as Sow-thistle, Small nettle, Charlock, Fat-hen as well as improving activity on perennial weeds such as Creeping buttercup, Creeping thistle and Plantain.

To make life easy, and where weeds are still quite small, making a tube of Triad treat 4ha, and a 2.5l/ha dose of Spruce (10 litres) makes the two packs match.

Triad contains 50% w/w Tribenuron, Headland Spruce contains 400 g/l 2,4-DB

Written by Simon Pope - Crop Protection Manager
For more information dairy@wynnstay.co.uk

Fewer Worms, Better Growth Rates in Cattle

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

Making best use of grazing in 2015 is a must for rearers of all types of growing cattle…dairy heifers, suckler beef calves and pasture-based finishers alike. Now is a good time to start planning how to protect what you value.

It is vital to be aware that gastrointestinal worms can reduce summer growth rates long before signs start to show as loose faeces and dirty rumps, according to SAC beef adviser Dr Basil Lowman.

“Over a 200-day grazing season, unseen worm infections could easily reduce growth by 0.1 kg a day,” he says.
On good pasture, 1kg/day liveweight gain should be possible, according to Eblex.  But a 10% shortfall from this could mean an additional 20-30 days of feeding next winter to reach a target weight, or selling a 20kg lighter beast in the autumn. Either way, the likely extra cost is in the region of at least £40/head, calculates Zoetis vet Andrew Montgomery.

“There are several options available to farmers for season-long protection against worm infestations for growing cattle,” he explains. “So lack of choice is unlikely to be one of the main reasons for cattle being left unprotected.”

One increasingly used option to protect what you value is season-long cover from a single treatment with CYDECTIN 10% LA for Cattle (see graphic, left), given as a sub- cutaneous injection at the base of the ear at 1ml per 100kg liveweight. The active ingredient Moxidectin is distributed through the bloodstream, so worm larvae need to penetrate the gut wall, thereby stimulating an immune response, before being killed Another option that has stood the test of time is the pulserelease Autoworm bolus. At three-week intervals, a dose of wormer is released (see graphic, below) killing all the common worms that cattle may be carrying. At the same time, this method also offers the opportunity for a natural immune response to develop. The active ingredient in Autoworm has no residual action so cattle are exposed to worm challenge during each 21 day interval between wormer pulses, thereby stimulating an immune response.

To speak to an Animal Health Specialist about Worming in Cattle contact dairy@wynnstay.co.uk
All CYDECTIN brands contain moxidectin, POM-VPS. For further information, please contact your local Pfizer representative or Pfizer Animal Health, Walton Oaks, Dorking Road, Walton-on-the-Hill, Tadworth, Surrey KT20 7NS. 
Use medicines responsibly (www.noah.co.uk/responsible).
4 - Dr Basil Lowman, 5 March 2007. Interview with author (notes on file). SAC beef specialist. Comments re-validated by Dr Lowman 22 March 2011.
5 - Eblex press release (viewed 27 Oct 2010). Eblex challenges beef producers on grass performance. 

Case Study - High Yielding Danish Dairies

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

What's the "Secret"?

Kindly sponsored by Trouw Nutrition GB, Calvex and Holm & Laue, the Wynnstay Technical Team recently undertook a short visit to Denmark to a number of leading dairy and calf units. 

There are about 3,800 dairy farmers in Denmark with an average herd size of 150 cows. The milk quota is 1,142 tonnes. Danish dairy farmers are among the largest and most modern in Europe. More than half of the cows live in new loose-housing systems. Export of dairy products accounts for more than 20 per cent of the total Danish agricultural export. The total number of cattle in 2011 was approximately 1.5 million. Of these 565,000 were dairy cows and 99,000 were suckler cows. The yearly number of beef cattle slaughtered is around 550,000.

The first farm we visited was Fan. Breunese, Green Eye APS, Bolhedevej 14, 6800 Varde. This was a 400 cow, mainly Holstein x Friesian unit producing 10,500kgs of milk on 2 x milking. Dutch bulls are used. Buildings were extremely light and ventilation good - no real difference to a number of UK units.

Grass and maize silage are grown and both are high dry matter. Silage clamps are rarely filled over the height of the walls and face management was excellent.

 Colostrum management is a major priority on the farm and is seen as one of the major factors in the overall herd performance. A ‘Coloquick’ colostrum management machine is used and calves are then fed with a ‘Milk Taxi’. The herd has a 2% calf mortality rate.

The 2nd herd we visited was Hostrup Ostergard, Karupvej 21, 7540 Haderup – a 300Ha dairy again growing maize and grass, the herd numbers 280 cows milked with 4 Lely robots. The herd is currently selling 37 litres/cow/day with an annual yield of 11,400 litres.

A number of years ago milk yield was disappointing and after much investigation stray voltage, effecting dry matter intakes via the metal feed troughs was identified as the problem. Ironically, the electricity excess was coming from a nearby windfarm!

Colostrum management is a key focus as on the first farm. A Milk Taxi Pasteuriser is used to feed milk, with a phone app being used to measure and monitor the strength of the milk being fed.

We then visited the calf unit belonging to Calvex DK. The unit is used to measure calf performance with different housing and management systems.

A combination of H & L igloos and hutches are used with strategic roofing and penning used to create one of the perfect housing systems for calves from birth onwards.

A series of H & L 100 computerised feeders are used to feed the calves with an easy to use program to manage and monitor calves at any time which can be situated in the calf building or remotely at the manager’s house.

Bente & Ole Vestergaarde at Oster Haerup is a family run farm which regularly opens it’s doors to the public. The herd houses 200 cows averaging 11,300 litres at 4.14% fat and 3.55% protein and is on target to sell 12,000 litres this year. Milk is sold, like the majority of Danish dairy farmers, to Arla.

Milking cows and milking heifers are housed in separate groups.Feed troughs are as smooth and clean as your own dinner plate. The TMR is fed automatically with a robot which runs on a rail above the narrow double-sided, yoked feed trough.

Like many of the farms we visited, due to herd expansion in recent years, calf housing has come under pressure. Most of the farms had one or two of these mobile calf buildings which appeared to work extremely well. The weather when we visited was extremely cold and calves looked in good health.

Gunner Forum, Prastevej 18, 8832 Skals has 450 cows milked with 7 x Lely robots. The herd is currently averaging 40 litres/cow/day with the rolling herd yield at 12,750kgs at 3.7% fat and 3.46% protein.

A maximum of 8kg of cake is fed in the robots with a 40% DM TMR fed outside the robots. A premix is made up of: Soda wheat; Rape; Soya; Sodium Bicarbonate; Bergafat F-100 and bespoke minerals and mixed with high D-Value, high DM grass and maize silage.

Colostrum management is a top priority and again, the Coloquick system is used on this farm. All heifer calves receive 4 litres of identifiable and traceable ‘green’ colostrum within 1 hour of birth. The coloquick bag holds 4 litres, unlike other makes which hold less.

Spotlessly clean stainless steel buckets are used for milk feeding, water and starter concentrate across all the farms we visited……attention to detail!

Finally, the main driver for the top performance is a hard working, dedicated team of professional stockmen and women.

The last farm we visited was Per Andersson, Siggardvej 33, 7800 Skive. 300 cows averaging 13,000 litres. Close up cows are sand bedded. 3 feet of trough space per cow. 100sq feet of lying area per cow.

Calves - 90% of calves get 4 litres of colostrum within 1 hour of birth. Calves are then fed 3 feeds per day of 4 litres of milk each. Daily liveweight gains of 900-1200g are being achieved. No calves lost to diarrhoea, 2% mortality.

The dairy herd is fed a 40% dry matter TMR of maize silage, 1st cut grass silage, cereals, soya, rape, 150gms of minerals, 7 litres water. Dry matter intakes of over 28kgs are achieved. Plenty of fresh air

In summary, what are the common denominators seen on our visit to some of the successful, high yielding herds in Denmark? 

1. Focus on colostrum management using Coloquick system and accurate, consistent calf feeding practices using modern feeding equipment – “only get one chance to get well grown, productive, long lasting heifers”

2. High quality, high dry matter forages + consistent diets

3. Focus on cow health
a. Clean walkways
b. Comfortable bedding (sand, mattresses)
c. Regular footbathing
d. Excellent ventilation
e. Optimum lighting

4. Team approach – A passion for cows and youngstock, regular meetings with owner/herd manager, staff, vet and nutritionist

5. Simple, usable monitoring systems

6. Making full use of modern technology

Written by Steve Brown - Ruminant Feeds Product Manager
Follow @sirbilly55
For more information dairy@wynnstay.co.uk

Tip Top Teats

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

Fresh grass and bright sunshine seem to bring that little bit extra out of the cows; they clean up, are easier to see bulling and lose that dull appearance and sad demeanour from winter. So all appears well – but is it really? The onset of summer brings challenges of its own, one of which is the increase in SCCs always reported by National Milk Records (NMR).

One reason for this is that turnout can lead to a false sense of security. It is often assumed that grazing cows are less at risk of mastitis so hygiene procedures can be relaxed when in fact the opposite is true due to reduced teat condition.

With lower milk prices too there is a temptation to use a cheaper dip or cut out pre dipping but this will be false economy if it results in higher SCCs as maximising milk quantity and quality is even more important when prices are low.

Teat condition is often understated as a factor in mastitis control but it is important all year round, especially in the summer when teats are subjected to the vagaries of the weather – hot, sunny and dry one day then cold, wet and windy the next or, in my part of the world, the whole lot in one day! Typical wet spring weather also leads to muddy fields, increasing soil contamination.

Teat condition soon deteriorates, the skin becoming dry and flaky with small cracks. More severe lesions can be caused by sunburn, allergies and photo-sensitisation and all can be made worse by the cow licking herself.

Poor weather conditions, use of harsh chemicals and poor milking equipment or procedures can all lead to teat end hyperkeratosis in as little as 6 to 8 weeks.

Dry, cracked teats trap dirt and bacteria which are not easily removed by wiping or dipping, increasing the risk of infection, with around 75% of all cases of damaged skin leading to mastitis.

So why not just add more glycerine and create a ‘summer dip’? This may sound like the perfect solution but it’s not. Once the emollient level gets too high the power of the germicide is sacrificed, a common problem with summer dips and sprays. Failing to combat the likes of Staph. aureus is often the cause of the summer SCC rise.

A quote from Reid & Johnson, Rocky Ridge Vet Service, Wisconsin in their paper ‘Trouble Shooting Herds With Poor Teat Condition’ stated: “There are definite differences in teat dips and their ability to either heal teats that are chapped or cracked or to create issues of teats cracking or chapping. … One class of teat dips that have been very effective in softening keratin are the Chlorous acid teat dips”.

They found that these dips did a better job than most at softening the keratin at the teat end, allowing it to be removed more easily by aggressive action during test preparation.

Written by Adrian Morgan - Dairy Business Development Manager
For more information dairy@wynnstay.co.uk

Staphylococcus Aureus - The Cowman's Curse

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

Protecting your dairy cows from mastitis is easier said than done, particularly when you consider the difficult nature of some very hard to kill bacteria. This is the cowman’s curse. Mention mastitis causing bacteria and a few BIG names spring to mind, Staphylococcus aureus being one of the most prominent in most people’s minds.

Staphylococcus aureus (show in image below) has a round shape and is referred to in mastitis terms as a ‘contagious bacteria’ in that it is recognised that it lives and multiplies in the udder tissue and milk, and it can easily pass from cow to cow in the milking process. Staph. aureus was first identified by the surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in Aberdeen in 1880, in the pus of an open wound. From these types of infectious sources this bacteria can enter the udder system, sore and cracked teats will be ready made homes for growth. Staph aureus has over the years been treated by the penicillin antibiotic methicillin.

However, it has developed resistance. Now Methicillin Resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) is greatly feared in both the food chain and in hospitals. Methicillin has been superseded by Flucloxacillin a stronger more effective drug against Staph. aureus. Skin is a great home for Staph aureus, so cross infection from hand to cow’s teats or milk liner to teat becomes simple. Back flushing, cluster dipping and the wearing of nitrile gloves should be employed.

What makes Staph. aureus particularly difficult to control is the fact this spherical bacteria can produce an enzyme called beta lactase which prevents many penicillin antibiotics working. In addition the bacteria can create a gel like coat which prevents the cows own immune response from recognising it as a threat.

So there you have it, a very well known mastitis causing pathogen, with the ability to hide from the natural immune system (leucocytes) and capable of resisting the effects of antibiotics. The British Cattle Veterinary Association report that up to 35% of known ‘Staphs’ are antibiotic resistant. No surprise then that it can be the cowman’s curse on a high percentage of UK dairy farms.

Strangely, Staph. aureus has been found in heifer colostrum at first milking, so no contagious spread cow to cow in the milking process here! Truth is, flies can carry Staph. aureus as well.

It is clear the problem will never go away, but improved hygiene practices around the dairy will pay dividends. Attention to detail in both PRE and POST milking disinfection has clearly shown to reduce the spread of this pathogen. Paying close attention to skin and teat end condition is vital in removing another perfect hiding and breeding place for Staph. aureus. But Dry Cow management is key as, whilst strong post milking germicidal routines with full teat coverage can wash away and kill Staph. aureus in the milk film, it cannot reach the living and breeding Staph. aureus in milk secreting tissue inside the udder. Therefore, targeted antibiotic treatment and internal/external sealing which has been proven to impact on Staph. aureus, is a must in dry cow protocols.

Break the curse – Good Luck!

Written by Adrian Morgan - Dairy Business Development Manager
For more information dairy@wynnstay.co.uk

Looking Towards Turnout

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

You will still occasionally hear people say that grazing cows is no good for their fertility, but that is to misunderstand the drivers of fertility in dairy cattle. Many spring calving herds achieve excellent fertility at grass, and like so many things the key is to manage your expectations and your cows accordingly.

Grazed grass is the cheapest form of feed available on the farm but just like any other crop it needs to be utilized properly. Aim to maximise yield of grass on your farm by measuring what you grow, feeding it at the right covers and grazing down to the right residuals. This is what the NZ or grassland systems are all about, and done well, this system can maximise grass grown and utilised on the farm, and achieve excellent fertility.

Grass is an excellent feed with crude protein often above 20% and an M.E of above 12MJ. It also is rich in the right balance of oils to produce excellent quality eggs. However the challenge is that it is also a feed with variable dry matter and a low fibre content and occasionally can have extremely high protein levels producing very high levels of urea in the blood stream. Fertility problems often arise when farms try to pair very high yielding Holstein cows with a New Zealand style grazing system. The reason that things go awry is that if you turn out a high yielding Holstein cow, giving over 40 litres of milk, she is going to struggle to graze for long enough to achieve the dry matter intake to sustain that yield. Initially at least, genetics will win out over nutrition and the cow will still pump out the milk, buoyed by the protein in the grass. However she will be short of energy. This shortfall will be seen in falling milk protein percentages, and she will first of all try to make up this shortfall by taking fat off her back, resulting in the production of NEFA’s in the blood. These are directly toxic to developing eggs and this is probably the main reason fertility in very high yielding Holsteins can suffer at turnout.

On the other hand autumn-calving Holsteins or smaller, more aggressive grazing type animals giving 25 litres or so, will be able to graze enough at grass, on the right covers, to match their milk yield and energy requirements. It is often the case that fertility is excellent in these type of cows. When it isn’t, it is usually because of problems previously (e.g. overfat cows at calving especially after long dry periods in spring calvers) or over-estimating (or under-measuring!) the covers the cows are on. Not anything damaging in the grass per say. The one exception might be where the nitrogen level on the grass is off the scale, such as newly laid seeds. An excess of protein here can cause potentially dangerous levels of urea in the blood. Dangers include primarily depression of appetite, pushing cows further into a negative energy balance, and in extreme cases, urea poisoning, where cows become agitated, twitchy and demonstrate signs of abdominal pain, such as repeatedly lying down or kicking at their flanks. Where grass protein levels are high, it is sensible to trap this protein in the rumen, and support the cow’s metabolism by providing a source of starch, such as corn in the parlour, or buffer feeding with maize or wholecrop.

For the all year round calving herd the trick is to graze enough of the right cows to get your residuals right for the year, without compromising your highest yielding cows. Remember buffer feeding will alter grazing behaviour and many farms end up with the worst of both worlds, buffer feeding cows enough so that they won’t graze but not enough to supply their energy needs. In many herds you would be best off keeping a small number of fresh cows in and grazing a larger number of cows harder outside.

Aim to match the cows to the system you want to have, either by changing the type of cows you keep or by calving them at a time to maximise their ability as a grazing group.

Written by Tim O'Sullivan - Shropshire Farm Vets
Follow @ShropFarmVets
For more information dairy@wynnstay.co.uk

DairyCo 0 3 Qs of Colostrum Management

By Wynnstay Dairy News 4 years ago

The latest video from DairyCo, on the 3 Qs of colostrum management.

The 3 Qs of colostrum - Quantity, Quality, Quickly should be observed

Quantity - The recommendation is to give a first feed of 3 litres or 10% of body weight. This should be followed by another similar feed within 12 hours of birth.

Quality - Good quality colostrum contains at least 50g/litre of IgG. Any colostrum containing less than 20g/litre should not be used

Quickly - It is important that calves receive their first colostrum feed as soon as possible after birth, ideally within 2 hours